Note this is quickly replacing evolution and becoming the new model with the resistance from nihilistic atheist spectrum and basically claiming by proxy a more meaningful view of the universe more in line with Spinoza which is a step back towards Christian thinking....
UNIVERSAL SYMBIOGENESIS 179
It is indeed impossible to distinguish, let alone count, allthe elements that are borrowed or mixed in a givenlanguage or culture. But this does not
entail that itis not worth the effort to examine how many elements became merged throughout the course of its history.Universal symbiogenesis would thus introduce and allowfor concepts such as interaction and cooperation that oftenoperate in the humanities, notions that are often countered by concepts of competition (see e.g. Speidel, 2000), and assuch the concept of universal symbiogenesis cancomplement and/or counter cost-benefit equations and ideason selfishness.
The theory of evolution by means of natural selectionand universal selectionist accounts that grew out of themhave turned out to be very useful tools to model theevolution of life and various products of life. However, itcannot explain all the different types in which evolution canoccur and produce evolutionary novelty. If natural selectionwould indeed be able to explain all of life’s evolution, thenand only then, would it be an unscientific theory for atheory that explains everything explains nothing. The latter however is not the case.Faultfinders have rightly argued that the ModernSynthesis focuses exclusively on the mechanism of naturalselection to explain evolution. It has been argued that theModern Synthesis presents a sterile view of evolution(Sapp, 2004: 1049) for it fails to include the microcosm,which results in an evolutionary theory only applicable tozoology (Margulis and Sagan, 2002). The focus oncompetition and cost-benefit equations naturally excludescooperative and altruistic views since both are antagonisticcounterparts (Speidel, 2000), and organisms as well asspecies are, within a (post-)neo-Darwinian view,understood to be independently evolving entities (Margulisand Sagan, 2002).Here, symbiogenesis – which does not regard evolutionas a sterile process – allows for cooperative views and,following Margulis ideas, sees all organisms as chimeras, isoffered as a complementary view. Symbiogenesis can beuniversalized as well and can include at minimum theepidemiology of viruses, hybridization, cultural andlanguage evolution and even certain cosmological processes. Universal symbiogenesis even has potential inmedical applications. And also – not discussed here – epigenetic processes can be absorbed into a universalsymbiogenetic scheme, because the different interaction of the same genes lead to the emergence of new traits andsometimes even result in speciation.The already often used notion of a
by scholarsworking within a symbiogenetic framework can thus beapplied as a universal, evolutionary epistemologicalconcept as well, where it can complement Dawkins’replicators and Hull’s interactors.The enormous potential of an evolutionary view basedon symbiogenesis is yet to be felt in many extra-biologicalfields and also within evolutionary biology itself. It would be an enormous waste not to explore this potential and todismiss symbiogenesis
as a “would-be challenger”to selectionism. The universal symbiogenetic formula presented in this article will contribute in a positive way tomaking the importance of symbiogenesis more widelyknown in these other fields of research.
Sincere thanks to the Fund for Scientific Research,Flanders, the Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Scienceand the Research and Development Department of the VrijeUniversiteit Brussel. A warm thanks also goes out toFrancisco Carrapiço (botanist) and Frank Ryan (virologistand MD) for revising earlier drafts of parts of this paper.Roslyn Frank (cognitive linguist) is cordially thanked for commenting on the linguistic aspects described in this paper and for revising the whole paper in order for it to bein accordance with English grammar and orthography.Finally, Rik Pinxten (anthropologist) is also thankedsincerely.REFERENCES
Ayala, F.J. 1978. The mechanisms of evolution.
: 48–61.Boas, F. 1962.
Anthropology and Modern Life.
W.W. Norton andCompany, New York. [First published in 1928].Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Nunn, C.L., and Towner, M.C. 2006.Cultural Macroevolution and the transmission of traits.
: 52–64.Bradie, M. 1986. Assessing evolutionary epistemology.
Biology & Philosophy
: 401–459.Brandon, R.N. 1982. The levels of selection. In:
Genes,Organisms, Populations: Controversies over the Units of Selection
. Brandon, R.N. and Burian, R.M., eds. 1984,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, pp.133–139.Callebaut, W. 1993.
Taking the Naturalistic Turn or How Real Philosophy of Science is Done
. The University of ChicagoPress, Chicago, IL.
Callebaut, W. and Pinxten, R. 1987. Evolutionary Epistemologytoday: Converging views from philosophy, the natural andsocial sciences. In:
Evolutionary Epistemology: A Multiparadigm Program with a Complete Evolutionary Epistemology Bibliography
. Callebaut, W. and Pinxten, R., eds.Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 3–55.Campbell, D.T. 1959. Methodological suggestions from acomparative psychology of knowledge processes.
:152–183.Campbell, D.T. 1974. Evolutionary epistemology. In:
The Philosophy of Karl Popper
Vol. I, Schlipp, P.A., ed. La Salle,IL, pp. 413–459.
180 N. GONTIER Campbell, D.T. 1997. From evolutionary epistemology viaselection theory to a sociology of scientific validity: Edited byCecilia Heyes and Barbara Frankel.
Evolution and Cognition
:5–38.Carrapiço, F. and Rodrigues, T. 2005. Symbiogenesis and theearly evolution of life.
Proceedings of SPIE
: 59060R-1-4.Carrapiço, F. 2006. The origin of life and the mechanisms of biological evolution.
Proceedings of SPIE
.Changeaux, J.P. 1985.
Neuronal Man: The Biology of Mind
.Oxford University Press, New York.Chavez, L.R. 2006. Culture change and cultural reproduction:Lessons from research on transnational migration. In:
Globalization and Change in Fifteen Cultures: Born in oneWorld and Living in Another.
Stockard, J. and Spindler, G., eds.Thomson-Wadsworth, Belmont, CA.Croft, W. 2000.
Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach
. Pearson, Essex.Croft, W. 2002. The Darwinization of linguistics.
: 75– 91.Cziko, G. 1995.
Without Miracles: Universal Selection Theoryand the Second Darwinian Revolution
. Massachusetts Instituteof Technology, Cambridge, MA.Darwin, C. 1859.
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
John Murray, London.Dawkins, R. 1976.
The Selfish Gene
. Oxford University Press, New York.Dawkins, R. 1982. Replicators and vehicles. In:
Genes,Organisms, Populations: Controversies over the Units of Selection
. Brandon, R.N. and Burian, R.M., eds. 1984,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, pp.161–179.Dawkins, R. 1983. Universal Darwinism. In:
The Philosophy of Biology
. Hull, D.L. and Ruse, M., eds. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 15–35.Dennett, D. 1995.
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meaning of Life.
Penguin Books, London.Dyson, F. 1988.
Infinite in All Directions.
Penguin Books,London.Dyson, F. 1998. The evolution of science. In:
Evolution: Society,Science and the Universe
Fabian, A.C., ed., CambridgeUniversity Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 118–135.Dyson, F. 1999.
Origins of Life: revised edition.
CambridgeUniversity Press, Cambridge, MA.Eigen, M. 1996
. Steps towards Life: A Perspective on Evolution
.Oxford University Press, New York.Eigen, M. and Schuster, P. 1977. The Hypercycle: a principle of natural self-organisation. Part A: Emergence of the hypercycle.
: 541–565.Fischer, R.A. 1931. “The evolution of dominance.”
: 345–368.Fox, S.W. and Dose, K. 1972.
Molecular Evolution and the Originof Life
. W.H. Freeman & Co, San Francisco, CA.Gilbert, W. 1986. The RNA world.
: 618.Gontier, N. 2004.
De oorsprong en evolutie van leven.
Vubpress,Brussels. [The origin and evolution of life.]Gontier, N. 2006a. Introduction to evolutionary epistemology,language and culture. In:
Evolutionary Epistemology, Languageand Culture.
Gontier, N., Van Bendegem, J.P., and Aerts, D.,eds. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 1–29.Gontier, N. 2006b. Evolutionary epistemology and the origin andevolution of language: Taking symbiogenesis seriously. In:
Evolutionary Epistemology, Language and Culture.
Gontier, N.,Van Bendegem, J.P., and Aerts, D., eds. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 195–226.Gontier, N. 2006c. Evolutionary epistemology.
The internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. h
Gould, S.J. and Lewontin, R.C. 1979. The spandrels of San Marcoand the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist program.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London
:581–589.Hannerz, U. 1980.
Exploring the City: Inquiries toward an Urban Anthropology
. Colombia University Press, New York.Hannerz, U. 1992.
Cultural Complexity: Studies in the Social Organization of Meaning.
Colombia University Press, NewYork.Hannerz, U. 2002. Flows, boundaries and hybrids: Keywords intransnational anthropology. Stockholm University, Departmentof Social Anthropology, Unpublished manuscript: 1–25.[Translation of: Hannerz, U. 1997. Fluxos, fronteiras,híbridos: palavras-chave da antropologia transnacional.
(Rio de Janeiro)
: 7–39.]Hull, D.L. 1980. Individuality and selection.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics
: 311–332.Hull, D.L. 1981. Units of evolution. In:
Genes, Organisms, Populations: Controversies over the Units of Selection
.Brandon, R.N. and Burian, R.M., eds. 1984, MassachusettsInstitute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, pp. 142–159.Hull, D.L. 1988.
Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science.
TheUniversity of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.Hull, D.L. 2002. Species, languages and the comparative method.
: 17–28.Ingold, T. 1986.
Evolution and Social Life
. Cambridge UniversityPress, Cambridge, MA.Kroeber, A.L. 1963.
Anthropology: Culture Patterns and Processes.
Harbinger Books, New York. [First edition 1923]Lewontin, R. 1970. The levels of selection.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics
: 1–18.Lewontin, R. 2000.
The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism and Environment.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Mallet, J. 2006. Species concepts. In:
Evolutionary Genetics:Concepts and Case Studies
. Fox, C.W. and Wolf, B., eds.Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 367–373.Margulis, L. 1999.
The Symbiotic Planet, a New Look at Evolution
. Phoenix, Orion Books, London.Margulis, L. and Dolan, M.F. 2002.
Early life: Evolution on the Pre-Cambrian Earth,
second edition. Jones and BartlettPublishers, Sudbury, MA.Margulis, L. and Sagan, D. 2000.
What is Life?
University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.Margulis, L. and Sagan, D. 2002.
Acquiring Genomes: A Theoryof the Origin of Species.
Basic Books, New York.Maynard Smith, J. and Szathmáry, E. 1995.
The Major Transitionsin Evolution
. Oxford University Press, New York.Mayr, E. 1997.
Evolution and the Diversity of Life: Selected Essays.
Harvard University Press, Harvard, MA.Mufwene, S. 2002. What do Creoles and Pidgins tell us about theevolution of language? Unpublished manuscript available at: Mufwene, S. 2005. Language evolution: The population geneticsway. In:
Genes, Languages and their Evolution
. Hauska, G., ed.
UNIVERSAL SYMBIOGENESIS 181Universitätsverlag Regensburg, Regensburg, pp. 30–52.Oparin, A. 1955.
L’origine de la vie.
Editions en languesétrangères, Moscou.Orgel, L.E. 1994.
: 53–61.Pinxten, R. 1997.
When the Day Breaks. Essays in Anthropologyand Philosophy.
Peter Lang, Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.Pinxten, R. and De Munter, K. 2006.
De culturele eeuw.
Houtekiet, Antwerp. [The cultural century]Pinxten, R. and Dikomitis, L. in preparation. Urban religion or secularisation: the meaning of life as a modern predicament. In:
Urban Religion or Secularisation: Some Anthropological Examples.
Pinxten, R. and Dikomitis, L., eds.Plotkin, H. 1995.
Darwin Machines and the Nature of Knowledge:Concerning Adaptations, Instinct and the Evolution of Intelligence
. Penguin Books, London.Quine, W.V. 1969. Epistemology naturalized. In:
Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology.
Bernecker, S. andDretske, F., eds. 2000. Oxford University Press, Oxford pp.266–78. [First published in Quine, W.V., 1969,
Ontological Relativity and Other Essays
69–90. Colombia University Press, New York. Original title: Naturalized Epistemology.].Richards, R.J. 2002. The linguistic creation of man: CharlesDarwin, August Schleicher, Ernst Haeckel, and the missing link in 19th-century evolutionary theory. In:
Experimenting inTongues: Studies in Science and Language
. Doerres, M., ed.Stanford University Press, Stanford, MA, pp. 21–48
Roosinck, M. 2005. Symbiosis versus competition in plant virusevolution.
Nature Reviews, Microbiology
: 917–924.Ruse, M. 1988.
Taking Darwin Seriously.
Blackwell Publishers,Oxford.Ryan, F. 2002.
Darwin’s Blind Spot: Evolution beyond Natural Selection
. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.Ryan, F. 2004. Human endogenous retroviruses in health anddisease: a symbiotic perspective.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
: 560–565.Ryan, F. 2006. Genomic creativity and natural selection: a modernsynthesis.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
: 655– 672.Sapp, J. 2003.
Genesis: The Evolution of Biology
. OxfordUniversity Press, New York.Sapp, J. 2004. The dynamics of symbiosis: an historical overview.
Canadian Journal of Botany
: 1046–1056.Sapp, J., Carrapiço, F., and Zolotonosov, M. 2002.Symbiogenesis: the hidden face of Constantin Merezhkowsky.
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
: 413–440.Schwartz, J. 1999.
Sudden Origins, Fossils, Genes and the Emergence of Species.
John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.Senghas, R.J., Senghas, A., and Pyers, J. 2005. The emergence of Nicaraguan Sign Language: Questions of development,acquisition and evolution. In:
Biology and Knowledge Revisited: From Neurogenesis to Psychogenesis.
Langer, J.,Parker, S., and Milbrath, C. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Mahwah, NY, pp. 287–306.Speidel, M. 2000. The parasitic host: symbiosis contra Neo-Darwinism.
The Warwick Journal of Philosophy
: 119– 138.Villareal, L. 2004. Can viruses make us human?
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
: 296–323.Villareal, L. and Defilipps, V. 2000. A hypothesis for DNAviruses as the origin of eukaryotic replication proteins.
Journal of Virology
: 7079–7084.Wuketits, F.M. 1990.
Evolutionary Epistemology and its Implications for Humankind.
State University of New York Press, New York.Zook, D. 1998. A new Symbiosis language...
ISS Symbiosis News
182 N. GONTIER