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 Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise

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Deckard



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PostSubject: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise   Thu 15 Jul 2010, 10:21 pm

Let's first look at a familiar fellow - James Lovelock, the originator of the Gaia hypothesis and a classic card-carrying 'global warming/climate change' believer.


BTW, this guy envisions most of us dying off - and from his interviews I gather it doesn't bother him that much - it speaks volumes that this theme of 'depopulation' and 'totalitarianism' continues to pop up whenever the negative aspects of cybernetics are being discussed. The Unabomber alluded to these nefarious schemes, Jacques Ellul did in his book 'The Technological Society', and so on.

So - James Lovelock is a 'Cyberneticist'. So was BF Skinner - a so-called 'Behaviorist'. So you have all kinds of guys camouflaging themselves as being a representative of a particular trade when they are really part of a much wider scientific discipline - in this case 'Cybernetics'.


http://www.cybsoc.org/

This is the website of 'The Cybernetics Society'.

James Lovelock - Cybernetics Society

Quote :

James Lovelock FRS is an Honorary Fellow of the Cybernetics Society. He warns global warming will produce famine and could lead to a world population of less than a billion in a hundred years from now.

From Time magazine last December "Cornell's Lehmann is even more emphatic."If biochar could be massively applied around the globe," he says, "we could end the emissions problem in one to two years."

But the connections don't just end there. From his book 'The Ages Of Gaia', where he talks about his computer simulation model, the 'Daisyworld'.

The Ages Of Gaia



Quote :

Daisyworld differs profoundly from previous attempts to model the species or the Earth. It is a model more like those of control theory, or cybernetics as it is otherwise called. Such models are concerned with self-regulating systems; engineers and physiologists use them to design automatic pilots for aircraft or to understand the regulation of breathing in animals, and they know that the parts of the system must be closely coupled if it is to work. In their parlance, Daisyworld is a closed-loop model. Devices that are not self-regulatory are often unstable and engineers refer to them as "open loop"l the loops are the feedback links between the parts of the system."

James Lovelock defined Gaia as:

Quote :
a complex entity involving the Earth's biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and soil; the totality constituting a feedback or cybernetic system which seeks an optimal physical and chemical environment for life on this planet.

This is also what Arthur Jensen in the movie Network (Howard Beale, remember?) was talking about when he mentioned the 'system of systems' in his 'New World Order' speech.

Daisyworld

https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Daisyworld

Quote :

Daisyworld, a computer simulation, is a hypothetical world orbiting a sun whose radiant energy is slowly increasing. It is meant to mimic important elements of the Earth-Sun system, and was introduced by James Lovelock and Andrew Watson in a paper published in 1983 [1] to illustrate the plausibility of the Gaia hypothesis.

See? Global warming had a 'model' and a 'hypothetical world simulation' long before they started pushing the meme in public and around colleges/universities.

They then trickled this down to the public through a 1991 videogame called Sim Earth:

Quote :

A version of the Daisyworld simulation, with several shades of gray daisies, was included in the Maxis video game SimEarth.



All the control systems that will be regulating carbon output, conserving energy, the smart meters that will record your energy usage, the entire 'smart grid' in fact - all of that are examples of a cybernetic system of control. The whole global warming/climate change move to sustainability does not have anything to do with being 'sustainable' (dumb term that one), or tending to the environment.

Ask yourself: how sustainable is it to put sensors all over the planet? How sustainable is it to put smart meters inside every home? How sustainable are all these RF radio waves that are going to be produced as a result of all this 'climate change control'? How sustainable is it to be running these computers as part of geo-cybernetic Command and Control systems?

It's not very 'sustainable' or 'eco-friendly' at that - but this is the whole con-game behind it. Under the guise of 'environmentalism', they're bringing in cybernetic control.

Remember - this is cybernetics' promise:

http://dml.cz/dmlcz/135676

http://dml.cz/bitstream/handle/10338.dmlcz/135676/Kybernetika_41-2005-4_10.pdf

The importance and contribution of cybernetics for contemporary information society

Quote :
But practical implementation of the principles of cybernetics and the use of the theory of cybernetics in controlling all areas of the society can contribute to the sustainable development of all life on Earth in the future.

See all the 'eco' terms popping up there? Yet this essay does not have one thing to do with 'environmentalism', 'global warming', 'climate change', or anything like that. Like I said, global warming/climate change = ushering in of cybernetic control systems.

How do you control people? By controlling the environment they're in. When you control the environment, you control the people.

https://sites.google.com/a/aag.org/c2heke/calendar/preliminary-program/session-descriptions/geo-cybernetics-and-climate-change

Quote :

Geo-cybernetics and Climate Change
Carmen Reyes




Tuesday June 22, 2010
08:30-10:00, 10:30-12:00

This session continutes exploration of the concept of Geo-cybernetics as it relates in particular to Climate Change. Theoretical and practical aspects related with the use of a geo-cybernetic approach for the understanding of climate change will be presented and discussed. Demonstrations using geo-technological artifacts will be included to exemplify the manner in which the approach has been embedded into society.

Command and control of eco-nomies

Back in the '70s (at the same time that the US was building the ARPANET, aka the Internet), there was a project called Project Cybersyn in Chile. It was overseen by a British cyberneticist by the name of Stafford Beer, and its implications were huge - controlling the entire economy of Chile in top-down fashion.

Stafford Beer based this system on a conceptual model called Viable Systems Model - which as far as my research shows me was a precursor to Enterprise Architecture or at the very least has been combined with that. It talks about the promise of having a 'brain of the enterprise', of having a 'brain in the factory' - a synthetic brain of sorts that regulates the entire thing. Once again, this seems to recount HG Wells and his World Brain idea, pursued by me in another thread. It's also about how to integrate people into this organizational information flow so that the workers themselves become part of the 'hive mind' that constitutes the organization that is being 'governed'/'run' by the cybernetic C2 system.



http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/interactive/events/2009/02/medina


Needless to say, I'm going to be doing more research on this, and others should too. But on current evidence, it really looks like the head honchos behind global warming/climate change are camouflaging cybernetic systems of societal control under the banner of 'greenie environnmentalism' claptrap.
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PostSubject: Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise   Fri 16 Jul 2010, 12:24 am

from: http://www.augustreview.com/issues/technocracy/smart_grid:_the_implementation_of_technocracy?_20100222156/#

Quote :

Smart Grid: The Implementation of Technocracy?

By Patrick Wood, Editor
March 2, 2010
Introduction

According to the United Nations Governing Council of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP), "our dominant economic model may thus be termed a 'brown economy." UNEP's clearly stated goal is to overturn the "brown economy" and replace it with a "green economy":

"A green economy implies the decoupling of resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth... These investments, both public and private, provide the mechanism for the reconfiguration of businesses, infrastructure and institutions, and for the adoption of sustainable consumption and production processes." [p. 2]

Sustainable consumption? Reconfiguring businesses, infrastructure and institutions? What do these words mean? They do not mean merely reshuffling the existing order, but rather replacing it with a completely new economic system, one that has never before been seen or used in the history of the world.

This paper will demonstrate that the current crisis of capitalism is being used to implement a radical new economic system that will completely supplant it. This is not some new idea created in the bowels of the United Nations: It is a revitalized implementation of Technocracy that was thoroughly repudiated by the American public in 1933, in the middle of the Great Depression.

The Technocrats have resurfaced, and they do not intend to fail a second time. Whether or not they succeed this time will depend upon the intended servants of Technocracy, the citizens of the world.

Indeed, the dark horse of the New World Order is not Communism, Socialism or Fascism. It is Technocracy.

Background

Founded by Howard Scott and M. King Hubbert in 1932 during the Great Depression, Technocracy proposed a radical new solution for the world's economic ills. In 1932, Harry A. Porter wrote in Roosevelt and Technocracy,

"Just as the Reformation established Religious Freedom, just as the Declaration of Independence brought about our Political Freedom, Technocracy promises Economic Freedom." [Foreward, iii]

Porter's plan included abandoning the gold standard, suspending the stock exchanges and nationalizing railroads and public utilities. Freedom notwithstanding, Porter then called for President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt to be sworn in as Dictator rather than President so that he could overturn the existing economic system in favor of Technocracy:
"Drastic as these changes from the present order of things may be, they will serve their purpose if only to pave the way for the Economic Revolution - and Technocracy." (p. 63)

If Technocracy had truly been extinguished before the onset of WWII, we would not be concerned about it today. However, when Zbigniew Brzezinski wrote Between Two Ages: America's Role in the Technetronic Era in 1968, it was essentially a Neo-Technocratic treatise calling for a fourth and final stage of world history, or the Technetronic Era.

When David Rockefeller picked Brzezinski to co-found the Trilateral Commission in 1973, it was with the specific goal to create a "New International Economic Order." Without some knowledge of historic Technocracy, exactly what the Trilateral Commission ultimately had in mind with such a goal could not possibly have been understood.

Today, it is necessary to rethink these issues in order to determine a) if this radical movement is still operating, b) what are their goals and c) how do they plan to achieve their goals.

In Carbon Currency: A New Beginning for Technocracy?, the subject of historic Technocracy was introduced in the context of creating a new economic system based on energy accounting rather than price accounting. An energy-based accounting system uses "energy certificates," or Carbon Currency, instead of dollars or other fiat currencies. Periodic and equal allocations of available energy are made to citizens, but they must be used within the defined time period before they reach an expiration date. Furthermore, the ability to own private property and accumulate wealth would be deemed unnecessary.

The pressing and unanswered question is how would such a Technocratic system actually be implemented?

This paper will now address the strategy, tactical requirements and progress of establishing an energy-based Technate in North America. ["Technate" is the term used to describe the geographic region operated according to Technocracy. Thus, a North American Technate would include Canada, Mexico and the U.S. and they would all be under common control. ]

Requirements

The Technocracy Study Course, written by Howard Scott and M. King Hubbert in 1932, established a detailed framework for Technocracy in terms of energy production, distribution and usage.

According to Scott and Hubbert, the distribution of energy resources must be monitored and measured in order for the system to work -- and this is the key: monitoring and measuring.

They wrote that the system must do the following things:

"Register on a continuous 24 hour-per-day basis the total net conversion of energy.
"By means of the registration of energy converted and consumed, make possible a balanced load.
"Provide a continuous inventory of all production and consumption
"Provide a specific registration of the type, kind, etc., of all goods and services, where produced and where used
"Provide specific registration of the consumption of each individual, plus a record and description of the individual." [Scott, Howard et al, Technocracy Study Source, p. 232]
In 1932, such technology did not exist. Time was on the Technocrat's side, however, because this technology does exist today, and it is being rapidly implemented to do exactly what Scott and Hubbert specified: Namely, to exhaustively monitor, measure and control every kilowatt of energy delivered to consumers and businesses on a system-wide basis.

It's called: Smart Grid.

What is Smart Grid?

Smart Grid is a broad technical term that encompasses the generation, distribution and consumption of electrical power, with an inclusion for gas and water as well. America's aging power grid is increasingly fragile and inefficient. Smart Grid is an initiative that seeks to completely redesign the power grid using advanced digital technology, including the installation of new, digital meters on every home and business in the U.S.

These digital meters provide around-the-clock monitoring of a consumer's energy consumption using continuous 2-way communication between the utility and the consumer's property. Furthermore, meters will be able to communicate with electrical devices within the residence to gather consumption data and to control certain devices directly without consumer intervention.

According to a U.S. Department of Energy publication,

"The Department of Energy has been charged with orchestrating the wholesale modernization of our nation's electrical grid... Heading this effort is the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. In concert with its cutting edge research and energy policy programs, the office’s newly formed, multi-agency Smart Grid Task Force is responsible for coordinating standards development, guiding research and development projects, and reconciling the agendas of a wide range of stakeholders." (See The Smart Grid: An Introduction)

This is a relatively new initiative, but it is racing forward at breakneck speed. The Office of Electricity Delivery was created in 2003 under President George W. Bush, and elevated in stature in 2007 by creating the position of Assistant Secretary of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability to head it.

It is not clearly stated who "charged" the Department of Energy to this task, but since the Secretary of Energy answers directly to the President, it is assumed that it was a directive from the President. There certainly was no Congressional directive or mandate.

Implementation

On October 27, 2009, the Obama administration unveiled its Smart Grid plan by awarding $3.4 billion awarded to 100 Smart Grid projects. According to the Department of Energy's press release, these awards will result in the installation of:
more than 850 sensors called 'Phasor Measurement Units" to monitor the overall power grid nationwide
200,000 smart transformers
700 automated substations (about 5 percent of the nation's total)
1,000,000 in-home displays
345,000 load control devices in homes
This is the "kick-start" of Smart Grid in the U.S. On January 8, 2010, President Obama unveiled an additional $2.3 billion Federal funding program for the "energy manufacturing sector" as part of the $787 billion American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. Funding had already been awarded to 183 projects in 43 states, pending Obama's announcement.
One such project in the northwest is headed by Battelle Memorial Institute, covering five states and targeting 60,000 customers. The project was actually developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), a federal agency underneath the Department of Energy. Since it is pointedly illegal for a federal agency to apply for federal funds, BPA passed the project off to Battelle, a non-profit and non-governmental organization (NGO), which was promptly awarded $178 million.

It is interesting to note that BPA takes credit for originating the Smart Grid concept in the early 1990's, which it termed "Energy Web." You can see from BPA's graphic depiction that it is comprehensive in scope from production to consumption.



According to Battelle's August 27, 2009 press release,

"The project will involve more than 60,000 metered customers in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. Using smart grid technologies, the project will engage system assets exceeding 112 megawatts, the equivalent of power to serve 86,000 households.

'The proposed demonstration will study smart grid benefits at unprecedented geographic breadth across five states, spanning the electrical system from generation to end-use, and containing many key functions of the future smart grid,' said Mike Davis, a Battelle vice president. 'The intended impact of this project will span well beyond traditional utility service territory boundaries, helping to enable a future grid that meets pressing local, regional and national needs.'”

Battelle and BPA intend to work closely together and there is an obvious blurring as to who is really in control of the project's management during the test period.

In a "For Internal Use Only" document written in August 2009, BPA offers talking points to its partners. It states that "Smart Grid technology includes everything from interactive appliances in homes to smart meters, substation automation and sensors on transmission lines." [Emphasis added]

A Network of Things

As the World Wide Web (WWW) is to people, the Network of Things (NOT) is to appliances. This brand new technology creates a wireless network between a broad range of inanimate objects from shoes to refrigerators. This concept is "shovel ready" for Smart Grid implementation because appliances, meters and substations are all inanimate items that technocrats would have communicating with each other.
For instance, In 2008 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed this small circuit board called a "Grid Friendly Appliance Controller." According to a Department of Energy brochure,

"The GFA Controller developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a small circuit board built into household appliances that reduces stress on the power grid by continually monitoring fluctuations in available power. During times of high demand, appliances equipped with the controller automatically shut down for a short period of time, resulting in a cumulative reduction that can maintain stability on the grid."

According to PNNL's website,

"The controller is essentially a simple computer chip that can be installed in regular household appliances like dishwashers, clothes washers, dryers, refrigerators, air conditioners, and water heaters. The chip senses when there is a disruption in the grid and turns the appliances off for a few seconds or minutes to allow the grid to stabilize. The controllers also can be programmed to delay the restart of the appliances. The delay allows the appliances to be turned on one at a time rather than all at once to ease power restoration following an outage."

You can see how automatic actions are intended to be triggered by direct interaction between objects, without human intervention. The rules will be written by programmers under the direction of technocrats who understand the system, and then downloaded to the controllers as necessary. Thus, changes to the rules can be made on the fly, at any time and without the homeowner's knowledge.

PNNL is not a private enterprise, however. It is "owned" by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Battelle Memorial Institute!

All of this technology will be enabled with Wi-Fi circuitry that is identical to the Wi-Fi-enabled network modems and routers commonly used in homes and businesses throughout the world. Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance that refers to wireless network systems used in devices from personal computers to mobile phones, connecting them together and/or to the Internet.

According to the Wi-Fi Alliance, "the need for Smart Grid solutions is being driven by the emergence of distributed power generation and management/monitoring of consumption." In their white paper, Wi-Fi for the Smart Grid, they list the specific requirements for interoperability posted by the Department of Energy:

Provide two-way communication among grid users, e.g. regional market operators, utilities, service providers and consumers
Allow power system operators to monitor their own systems as well as neighboring systems that affect them so as to facilitate more reliable energy distribution and delivery
Coordinate the integration into the power system of emerging technologies such as renewable resources, demand response resources, electricity storage facilities and electric transportation systems
Ensure the cyber security of the grid.
Thus, the bi-directional and real time Smart Grid communications network will depend on Wi-Fi from end to end. This is easily understood from the two figures included in the Wi-Fi Alliance white paper:




While the consumer is pacified with the promise of lower utility costs, it is the utility company who will enforce the policies set at the regional, national and global regulators. Thus, if a neighboring system has a shortage of electricity, your thermostat might automatically be turned down to compensate; if you have exceeded your monthly daytime quota of electricity, energy-consuming tasks like washing and drying clothes, could be limited to overnight hours.
Smart Grid and the utility's control extends beyond electricity. Notice in Figure 1 above that there is a Wi-Fi linkage to gas and water meters as well!

Consumer Blowback?

Wall Street Journal reported "What Utilities Have Learned From Smart-Meter Tests..." on February 22, 2010, and revealed several important early aspects of smart grid implementation.
A principal goal is to enable utilities to restructure rate plans
A principal goal is to force consumer behavior to change
Some utility executives anticipate and fear a consumer rebellion
Nevertheless, the big carrot for utility companies to go along with the government's Smart Grid is to balance electrical demand, cut back on new power generation facilities and enhance their profit picture.
Before the dust settles on Smart Grid, both consumers and utilities may learn some sharp lessons about government intervention: When the government shows up on your doorstep and offers to help you save money, everyone knows that is an oxymoron. Government does not function to help people or companies to save money or to be more efficient; rather, it functions to maintain and increase its own power and control over its citizens.

Going Global

The UNEP report mentioned above reveals that "15 percent of the fiscal stimulus funds committed for 2009-2010, which exceed $3.1 trillion, can be regarded as green in nature... most green components are oriented towards energy efficiency and renewable energies in a variety of sectors."

A BusinessWeek article, "How Italy Beat the World to a Smarter Grid" stated on November 16, 2009 that "After several false starts, 2010 finally could be the year when smart meters go global."

Indeed, it is:

Italy has already implemented Smart Grid technology in 85 percent of its homes nationwide
earth2tech.com reports that Smart Grid will generate $200 billion of global investment in the next few years
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has laid out a global roadmap to insure interoperability of Smart Grid systems between nations
Global companies are rushing to gain their share of the global Smart Grid market: IBM, Siemens, GE, Cisco, Panasonic, Kyocera, Toshiba, Mitsubishi, etc.
China is spending $7.32 billion to build out Smart Grid in Asia
Other countries with Smart Grid pilot projects already launched include Germany, France, England, Russia, Japan, India, Australia, South Africa and a host of others. Regional organizations such as SMARTGRIDS Africa have been set up to promote Smart Grid in smaller countries.

Thus, the global rush is on. In every case, Smart Grid is being accelerated by government stimulus spending. The global vendors are merely lining up their money buckets to be filled up with taxpayer funds.

As is the case in the U.S., there was little, if any, preexisting or latent demand for Smart Grid technology. Demand has been artificially created by the respective governments of each country.

Conclusion

Smart Grid meets 100 percent of the Technocracy's original requirements as described above. In other words, it will monitor and control both delivery and consumption of energy and other green resources such as water and gas.

The Smart Grid initiative was developed and funded by government agencies and NGO's. It was the Energy Department's Bonneville Power Authority that invented the concept in the 1990's. It was the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that invented the Grid Friendly Appliance Controller. It was the Federal Administration that showered billions of dollars over the private sector to jump-start the nationwide initiative to implement Smart Grid in every community.

If the Federal government had not been the initial and persistent driver, would Smart Grid exist at all? It is highly doubtful.

Following the same pattern as the U.S., many other industrialized nations are implementing Smart Grid at the same time, using their own stimulus money. This synchronized implementation is certainly by design, and as such, it implies that there must be a designer. Who might be providing such top-down coordination on a global basis must be saved for another paper. One thing is certain: The technology being purchased world-wide all originated in the United States and is being marketed by the same global corporations as mentioned above.

Lastly, there is an assumption throughout Smart Grid literature that the Federal Administration will have full visibility of all data within the Smart Grid, even down to the individual household. They will also be in a position to set national, regional and local distribution and consumption policies, such as your "fair share" of available energy, gas and water.

International standards created for Smart Grid will also enable the U.S. Smart Grid to be connected seamlessly with Canada and Mexico, thus providing a comprehensive North American energy management and distribution system.

Is Smart Grid destined to be a global phenomenon? Yes. Is it designed to support a new global Technocratic, resource-based economic system? Yes.

Technocracy must be seen for what it is: An attempt to impose a totalitarian, scientific dictatorship. In 1933, it called for the inauguration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as dictator in order to "pave the way for economic revolution." Fortunately at the time, they failed in their attempted coup.

If today's Smart Grid is successfully completed, it will enable the conversion of our existing economic system into something far different and far worse. This is why the American people repudiated Technocracy in 1933, and this is exactly why we (and citizens around the world) should thoroughly repudiate it today.

[Editor's note: Read an international review of this article on The Daily Bell of Appenzell, Switzerland.]

Resources

Scott & Hubbert, Technocracy Study Course, Technocracy, Inc., 1934

Background paper for the ministerial consultations, Governing Council of the United Nations Environmental Programme, December 14, 2009

The Smart Grid: An Introduction, U.S. Department of Energy

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, web site

2010 Strategic Plan, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability

The Networked Grid 100: Movers and Shakers of the Smart Grid

Meloan, Steve, "Toward a Global 'Internet of Things'", Oracle Software, November 11, 2003

Wi-Fi for the Smart Grid, Wi-Fi Alliance, 2009

Obama Announces $3.4 Billion Investment to Spur Transition to Smart Energy Grid, Department of Energy Press Release

Note: In preparing for this report, the editor would like to give special thanks to Dr. Martin Erdmann, Carl Teichrib and Dr. Michael Coffman, for their encouragement, testing of ideas and additional supporting research.




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PostSubject: Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise   Fri 16 Jul 2010, 12:31 am

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PostSubject: Followup - Part 2 - Stewart Brand Pops Up Again   Fri 16 Jul 2010, 12:37 am

From the book:

Gaia In Turmoil: Climate Change, Biodepletion, and Earth Ethics In An Age Of Crisis



You simply can't make up the interconnected web that constitutes this cyberneticist world-schemer class.

Stewart Brand - the guy who gave you 'personal' computers, Wired Magazine, Whole Earth Catalog, et al - was Gaian before Gaia was cool



http://books.google.com/books?id=N9TlKJEuuawC&pg=PA295&dq=Climate change +cybernetics&hl=en&ei=xdU_TKKkDIaq4wbk9pUl&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=In 1974 Stewart Brand&f=false
Quote :

Gaia and Second-Order Cybernetics in the CoEvolution Quarterly

In 1974 Stewart Brand spun CoEvolution Quarterly (or CQ) off from the first incarnations (1968-1971) of the Whole Earth Catalog (or WEC). Every issue of the WEC began with a section titled "Understanding Whole Systems". Every number of CQ contained one as well, occasionally shortened just to "Whole Systems". From the late 1960s on, these remarkable publications were the virtual house organ on the world stage for the popular discussion of the breadth of cybernetic complexities. Put another way, beginning in the planetary banner year of 1968, Brand's Whole Earth publishing collectives were Gaian before Gaia was cool.

In a way it is shocking to look back at these publications from the present moment of our gathering planetary emergence and see so many superb thinkers laying out detailed global ecological perspectives on local practices for what they perceived then as their emergency - explicit premonitions of global warming, the imminence of environmental devastation by nuclear war, rampant monoculture, and/or unsustainable population explosion - and to admit they already had it just about right (My note: Oh, I see what you did there. So nice that all these 'concerns' - population bomb, 'rampant monoculture', nuclear war - so nice that the solution to all of that entails a cybernetic command and control grid overlay onto the entire planet. Who does that benefit - oligarchs or the little people? You do the math)

Cybernetics, Stewart Brand, Gaia Theory and Lovelock
Second-order cybernetics - cybernetics of cybernetics - as in System Of Systems (SOS) - as in slaves of slaves - as in slave masters of slave masters

Quote :

"A case in point is our particular topic - Gaia, the hypothesis from which it originated, the theoretical variations into which it has evolved, and the wider cultural ramifications taken from the whole of these developments.

To begin with, appearing several times in the early pages of CQ were various items associated with Heinz von Foerster. Founder and director of the Biological Computer Laboratory at the University of Illinois from 1957 to 1975, von Foerster coined the phrase "second-order cybernetics" in the early 1970s. Its advent marked the moment when cybernetic theory explicitly factored self-reference into its own discourse, precisely as a "cybernetics of cybernetics", that is, as an effort to observe (at "second-order") its own processes of system observation. A formidable authority in cybernetic matters, von Foerster's relevance to this narrative will soon become clear.

As the purveyor of the Whole Earth Catalog, clearly Stewart Brand was primed to respond to a bona-fide cybernetic systems theory taking the Earth altogether as a "whole system". (My note: See - this is the thing - this is why Gaia as a theorem is so crucial for them. Because it defines Earth as a 'cybernetics' system, and the system acts like a thermostat - whenever the temperature gets too hot or cold, it regulates itself. Tie this in with population control, food control, energy control, and you get what is going on here - adapt people to negative feedback control loops, as in - doing with less, enforced austerity, less consumption, less monetary gain, degrading living standards in exchange for pagan ritual fests, and so on)

For the sixth number of CQ, appearing in Summer 1975, Brand arranged for the first presentation of the Gaia hypothesis in a nonspecialist journal. He observed in his head note that this serious scientific fare might appear anomalous in such a venue, to the detriment of the authors: "Margulis and Lovelock will doubtless take some flak for appearing in suspect company - condom evaluations, poetry, and such." But its inclusion was an inspired intervention on the part of all concerned: "The Atmosphere As A Circulatory System of the Biosphere: The Gaia Hypothesis" (Margulis and Lovelock 1975) led its reader into the topic with a seventeenth-century engraving and a discussion of Harvey's demonstration of the circulatory system of the body, as an analogy for the atmosphere's Gaian role in relation to the planetary 'body'. Fatefully, however, Brand (or someone) decided to append tot his more popular article a separate section titled "Gaia and cybernetics", an excerpt from a more technical piece that had appeared the year before, "Atmospheric Homeostasis by and for the Biosphere: The Gaia Hypothesis" (Lovelock and Margulis 1974), invoking first-order cybernetics and giving mathematical formulas for the application of Shannon and Weaver's information theory to the thermodynamics of living systems).

(My note: BTW - for those remaining few who did not fall asleep right there - that last line was a very clever way of saying - 'Gaia theory and Cybernetics' entails 'Homeostasis BY AND FOR THE BIOSPHERE' - as in - rights by and for the biosphere - but not for puny humans. That's what that comes down to. And then it goes into 'first-order cybernetics' - which is also extremely damning - since first-order cybernetics - as admitted by this book itself - is all about CONTROL - control with a capital C. And then this clever coaxing of 'humans' as 'living systems' - mymy, I tip my hat to whoever wrote this thinly veiled crap.)

How the 'cybernetics' of Gaia will put people inside a controlled dialectical eco-nomy
Quote :

"The primary function of many cybernetic systems is to steer an optimum course through changing conditions towards a predetermined goal," Lovelock (1979:48) wrote in chapter 4, "Cybernetics", of his first book on Gaia. (My note: A predetermined goal, eh? My, that's a 'conspiracy theory'! There are no 'world schemers' - even a system does not 'scheme' anything. No, everything occurs just by happenstance)

His first example of self-regulation around a set point was drawn from the organic or physiological side of the classical cybernetic metaphor heuristically equating organisms and machines (My note: BTW - Skinner was instrumental in breaking down this 'distinction' between 'organisms' and 'machines' - in his mind, conditioning rendered both of them inseparable - humans WERE basically machines, and it was up to guys like him to imprint them). It is proprioception - the bodily or neurological faculty of homeostatic self-perception applied to the maintenance of locomotive balance. In this analogy Gaia is the proprioceptive or internal self-balancing feedback system of the biosphere as a planetary body (My note: Feedback control system - very important this - and note 'planetary body' - remember another fellow card-carrying greenie, John Holdren, mulling over this 'planetary regime'?)

Lovelock then reverted to the mechanical realm to offer the homeliest of cybernetic analogies: Gaia in operation performs like the thermostat of a kitchen oven. The Earth is the oven box, the Sun is the heat coil, and Gaia is the regulator that keeps the temperature at an "optimum" (My note: And what the hell are the humans within this 'thermostat'? They cool off - they get burned alive - or the thermostat 'self-regulates' itself to cause for significant drops in temperature, thus killing off people who can't 'sustain' themselves in this kind of climate? You know, I'm just having fun with this stuff - that's what it's all about, right - just a sick system for control and governance)




How videogames - a byproduct of cybernetics/game theory - have pushed the Gaia meme - the 'self-regulating' Earth - the cybernetic control system



Illusion of Gaia (1994)

Believe it or not, the Japanese are in love with everything having to do with Gaia. No big surprise, given the whole Shinto religion they had and still have going over there - the pantheistic nature worship religion where everything from a fox to a toad can constitute a God/Kami/spirit lord/whatever.

Other videogames from Japan with the 'Gaia meme':



Final Fantasy VII (1997)

Has lead characters in it - girls who sell flowers on the streets - who can hear the 'cries' emanating from the planet - the planet has wounds in it caused by environmental degradation and rapid industrialization/an evil monolithic corporation depriving the world of natural resources - the lead characters commit acts of 'eco-terrorism' on said corporation.

Oh, and then there's the movie (Final Fantasy - The Spirits Within (2001)), where they openly call the planet 'Gaia'.


Final Fantasy - The Spirits Within (2001)
Quote :

The 1997 console role-playing game, Final Fantasy VII features a paradigm of so-called Lifestream, also appearing in the 2001 film, as the 'Dr. Sid's Gaia Theory' (these theories look almost identical due to the same scenario writers, Hironobu Sakaguchi and Kazushige Nojima). According to it, all living beings are given some 'spirital energy' by the spirit of the Planet (Gaia) prior to birth, live out their lives, and then die, with the energy then returning to the Planet. Entire Planet (or Gaia) is really a single living organism with its own consciousness and will.
'The Spirits Within' of the title is supposedly the 'carbon blob' living inside each and every member of society just crying to 'get out' and become 'sustainable'.



Sim Earth (1990)

Believe it or not, Will Wright worked directly with James Lovelock to push this one out there - for kids and adults alike to receive their 'cybernetic slave adaptation' programming course.

https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Sim_Earth

Quote :

The game models the Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock (who assisted with the design and wrote an introduction to the manual), and one of the options available to the player is the simplified "Daisyworld" model.


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PostSubject: Re: Global Warming/Climate Change Agenda Is Geo-Cybernetics In Disguise   Fri 16 Jul 2010, 2:27 am

Looks like as of 2010 they're finally throwing down the gauntlet now.

This is from the 'FIG Congress Sydney 2010: Facing the Challenges – Building the Capacity'.

http://www.fig.net/pub/fig2010/papers/ts05e/ts05e_stangu_3816.pdf

Quote :

Geo-cybernetics, in the light of the ideas above, may be defined as the science of the management of man-created artificial transformations and modifications in his environment as well as of the risk reduction to natural hazards, and of entropy reduction by means of the informational system of geospatial measurements, the cadastre, of GIS and other sciences connected with the territory, in concept and cybernetic thinking.



Geo-Cybernetics – a 21st Century Cybernetic Approach to Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection

Ioan STANGU, Romania

Key words: geo-cybernetics, matter, substance, energy, transformation, information, entropy, geospatial measurements, cadastre, GIS.

SUMMARY

At the beginning of the 21st century, mankind seems to be confronted with special natural phenomena which are determined, on the one hand, by the natural development of the Earth and by the uncontrollable and sometimes irresponsible activities of humanity, on the other. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to ensure the equilibrium of Man-Nature relationship by means of a decisive intervention of decision-making factors and of science, too, on a planetary scale has become compulsory these days.

Geo-Cybernetics – a 21st Century Cybernetic Approach to Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection
Ioan STANGU, Romania

1. INTRODUCTION

The activity unfolded by Man in the middle of his environment, which is determined by the multitude of life-preservation elements, which ensure nourishment and dwelling conditions in parallel with all the other artificial elements created and achieved to further develop human society, may produce multiple “transformations”to our natural habitat.

Unfortunately, these transformations which are being produced by Man in his environment overcome the limits imposed by Nature, a fact that leads to disturbances with serious effects called “pollution”, which is in fact more than that, it represents irreversible natural destruction phenomena.

All climatic changes, determined by complex natural phenomena produce, in their turn, “specific changes” which manifest themselves nowadays through global warming, storms, hurricanes and heavy rains in some areas of the Earth having as immediate effects catastrophic floods, landslides, droughts, etc, accompanied by important human and material losses.

The natural evolution of the Earth, as a live organism, in its multiple manifestations, produces a “certain type of change”, independent from man’s will, such as the earthquakes and the volcanic eruptions with their disastrous effects.

The multitude of these “pieces of information”characteristic to these “changes”, necessary in the process of control, analysis and decision-making in management activities asks for the use of some scientific domains that could “measure”and “keep the evidence”of these changes in time and space, as well as of geo-spatial measurements, of cadastre and GIS and other land sciences together with a new way of cybernetic thinking and action.

2. FROM CYBERNETYCS TO GEO-CYBERNETYCS.

Cybernetics, as a science, is defined by its creator, the American scientist Norbert Wiener, in his work, Cybernetics, as a “domain of control theory and communication in machines and in live organisms, as well”.

This definition, which today is surpassed by the very development of cybernetics, was extended by Wiener himself particularly over the field of social and economic sciences.

The further development of this new science offers us some definitions which are not unitary, being more or less complete, which shows the position of the authors in relation to cybernetics, as well as to their own field of activity.

Therefore, some emphasize the control (Wiener, Conffignal, Berg), others – regulation and self-regulation (Klaus, Lange, Gremiewski) or the reverse connection (Apostol), or communication and information (Ruyer, Gluskov), while others stress up the completeness, the final action (Moles) or others who think of this science in terms of automatic machines or life-imitating robots (Boulanger).

Closer to the complex domain we have tackled so far, the environmental transformations operated by humanity and the analysis of these changes cybernetically, which we call “geo-cybernetics”, seem to be the definition given to cybernetics by other authors who define it as :”the theory of self-regulating dynamic systems”or “ the general science of management and regulation of interconnected action systems that deal with all the general principles and law research that govern all these systems, irrespective of their concrete character, or “ the general theory of complex dynamic system management”or even, that cybernetics studies the general laws of the processes that occur within some complex dynamic systems when these change from a state to another, irrespective of their physical or social nature”, or “ the science of the general laws of information change within complex control systems”.

From the definitions above we may select the quasi-unanimous opinion that cybernetics is the “science of system management”.

All the scientists that study such problems admit that the subject of cybernetics deals with the control of complex dynamic systems, which may include the animals (and the man) as well as the machines (electronic devices as complex dynamic systems) and the social systems (society, industrial units, production, etc.)

The study of cybernetics is characterized by the fact that management processes are being studied without taking into account the system substrate, i.e., its substantial and energetic characteristics. It deals with informational processes as they are the ones that determine the system behavior, no matter if it is of a substantial, energetic or social nature. By analyzing the analogies existing between the functional principles that belong to various systems (biological, technical, economical, social, etc), cybernetics preserves from the components of these systems only those elements that are characteristic to them all. So, as we see, cybernetics doesn’t study “the content”of the systems, but only their “structure”.

Cybernetics doesn’t analyze objects, but behavioral ways. It doesn’t ask a question like that:”what is this object ?”, but “ what does this object do?”.

Scientifically, the behavior of some complex dynamic systems cannot be foreseen if we do not know the informational processes of reception, processing and transmitting that lie behind. And similarly, we can’t analyze the information we get if we don’t possess a precise scientific characterization of that system behavior. All the social, economic, technical, etc. phenomena may evolve differently in accordance with the information we get, process and transmit.

The behavior of the complex dynamic systems is connected directly with the processes of reception, processing and transmitting of information. As a result, the control is an informational process.

The informational processes that determine the behavior of these complex dynamic systems evolve according to their own laws, totally different from the laws of mechanics, physics and chemistry. So, if the physical and chemical processes occur according to their specific laws, whose behavior is given by modifications in substance and energy, the behavior of the phenomena in the social, economic and biological domains is determined by the laws according to which they receive, process and transmit the information.

There are two categories of phenomena if we take the behavioral characteristics into account: the substantial and the energetic phenomena, on the one hand, and informational and organizational processes, on the other. The informational and organizational processes and phenomena are those whose behavior depends upon the signal received and by the action of processing and transmitting, the informational and organizational actions rather than by the quantity and quality of the substantial and energetic action.

As an informational process, the command occurs in a certain general order, therefore in a certain organization for all the complex dynamic systems.

Cybernetics is also characterized by the fact that it doesn’t explain the complex systems through others, less complex in structure. On the contrary, it looks at the complex systems the way they are, as complex systems, emphasizing their essential characteristics by means of specific laws and categories.

The cybernetic way of thinking, as opposed to the classic way of thinking which considers the organism and the society as being mere mechanisms, conceives the machines as artificial organisms with a certain finality and behavior.

If, traditionally, we had to pass from well-known, simpler elements to others, more complex, to systems composed of these known elements, the cybernetic thinking goes in reverse: from complex totalities with their functioning to the gradual discovery of their constituents and of the connections between them which ultimately ensure their functioning.

Only gradually do we reach the part starting from the whole, and from the system to the element.

If the classical systems present a “development”in time, cybernetic systems have a “behavior”in time. For the cybernetic systems, the concept of behavior implies the concept of milieu (environment), too, where the system makes use of its particular type of behavior.

With the help of cybernetic abstracting, which allows the comparison between the scientific results that come from completely different domains of reality, we may speak about systems that may preserve a certain “state”or follow a certain development, irrespective of the changing influences of the environment. The concept of behavior is isomorphic with the concept of “operation”as any system behavior means the performance of a set of operations. If such a set of operations, i.e., a certain behavior, turns into a theoretical norm, then it becomes an integral part of the methodology and changes itself into an algorithm

2.1 The Cybernetic Components of Matter: Substance, Energy, Information

Anyway, cybernetics opens up ways of getting new viewpoints about the essential aspects of matter. The present level of human knowledge, the cyberneticist’s already expressed opinions allow the highlighting of the three essential aspects of matter: the”substance”, the “energy”and the “information”. (apud Wiener)

The evolution of society first emphasized the “substance”which deals with the substantial side of matter. This aspect is emphasized on the production plan as substance, material transformation and processing represents the main problem of all the material goods.

But soon, the evolution of modern sciences as well as the development of production throw a different light upon the energetic aspect of matter. This aspect, very actual nowadays, determined by the first aspect for the production, transformation and transmitting of energy required by substance transformation and processing appears as the second important aspect of matter.

As long as the processes of transformation of substance, of its processing, but also the production, transformation and transmission of energy were relatively simple, the problems connected with the information, always interwoven with the other two aspects, could have been solved almost simultaneously, in a spontaneous and tacit way. But once with the diversification of all the goods, this activity was no longer possible.

Cybernetics is responsible for having emphasized the third aspect of matter, which had been previously foreseen by anticipations: the “information”and “organization”aspects of matter. Without getting into details about the concept of information, we may introduce the definition given by Wiener to information which is unanimously accepted nowadays: “information is merely information, it is neither matter (substance) nor energy”.

It is therefore importa

t to point out that information is vital and so often all-present that we may say that man’s existence relies on the permanent presence of both information and its connections as well.

2.2 Management = an informational process

Cybernetics introduces for the first time, consciously and systematically, the structural aspect of matter. Each “substantial”system has a given structure, i.e., a given “order”, hence, a given “organization”.

In its turn, any process of management based on the selection, processing and transmitting of information is possible only on a structure, on a certain organization which serves in the maintenance or the improvement of the structure. In the process of goods creation, this new aspect presents itself as a command and regulation technique, on one hand, and as an informational technique, on the other, which, together make up the basis of automated modern production.

We may say that, the automated, modern production represents the unity between the substantial, energetic and structural-informational aspect which became possible only when this new aspect has been noticed systematically, scientifically, taking on the appearance of a new theory.

As a result, information is not an exterior aspect, a phenomenon, an object, but it is an objective property of things, processes and phenomena. It is actually one of the general properties of matter.

The informational aspect, and the organizational aspect as well, as compared to the substantial aspect occupies the first position in modern production. In this context, we must admit that there is no information that should not be connected to substantial structures or need the energy necessary for its further maintenance, formation and development. The three components may be presented as logical implications: the substantial aspect, the energetic aspect and the informational aspect.

The information appears as an arrangement in its development from inferior to superior and we must therefore admit that information arranges and organizes the substantial and energetic processes. By extending it to the human activity in the territory, we may appreciate that information appears as an ordering of various forms of manifestation of human activity in the territory.

If the sciences, in general, look at information through the processes they analyze, cybernetics generates a characteristic treatment and explaining of the information. It studies information only from its management functional role point of view. In its essence, management is an informational process. As a result, all the processes and actions are meant to ensure the preservation of system equilibrium (homeostasis), so their rational behavior represent an information.
At the same time, the three aspects of matter are to be found in a close cybernetic interdependence due to the fact that the energetic-substantial aspect of matter presents a certain ordering(organization) within a given space and developing within a certain time as an event, phenomenon or process, object or state.

The establishment of information relationships within the system makes up a logical chain, similar to a closed circuit logical chain is represented by a series of events which move in a given order, the so-called normal order of the information unfolding. The normal order of the information unfolding within the system closes up the informational circuit.

2.3 Information = Energetic Transformation of the Substance

As seen above, I consider that information is not simply information, as Wiener pointed out when defining matter and information, but it is actually the component of a logical chain of actions from inside the matter -substance, energy, information-that all these are in a close interdependence and as a consequence, the information is the result of actions that take place between the substantial and the energetic aspects of matter.

So, information is, in my opinion, the result of energetic transformation of substance known by the man.

We may motivate this point of view by the fact that information is an exterior process, a phenomenon, a thing, doesn’t exist outside matter under a different shape, but it is a result determined by conscious human activity, of substance controlled energetic transformation with a purpose and secondly, that information doesn’t exist outside substance energetic transformations.

Any other energetic transformation of the substance leads to entropy and as a result to disorganization, or rather, to natural hazards.

If we resort to a simplifying hypothesis, the definition we found for information, as a component of matter, can be graphically represented in Figure 1.

The significance and matter components, according to Figure 1, are the following:

E -represents the energy, matter essential component which serves to the controlled transformation of substance by the man;
S -represents the substance, the concrete, natural component of matter which the man transforms with the help of energy
T -constitutes the controlled energetic transformation of substance by the man;
I -represents “information”, i.e. the result of substance energetic transformation, or mathematically:



I = f (T:E,S)

2.4 The Concept of Geo-Cybernetics

Geo-cybernetics, in the light of the ideas above, may be defined as the science of the management of man-created artificial transformations and modifications in his environment as well as of the risk reduction to natural hazards, and of entropy reduction by means of the informational system of geospatial measurements, the cadastre, of GIS and other sciences connected with the territory, in concept and cybernetic thinking.

This concept is, in my opinion, a requirement of today’s human activity and particularly of the future, which needs the action of several sciences in the process of human activity management due to the problems created by both man and nature, and having as major aim the process of sustainable development of human society and the actual protection of the environment.

My personal interest concerning the use of cybernetics in human activities management in the territory dates back to the time when I was working on my doctoral paper when I had the opportunity to study Wiener’s theory about cybernetics as well as other studies that framed up my “cybernetic thinking”. It also left me thinking about Wiener’s definition of information: “ information is simply information, it is neither substance nor energy”.

All the studies I dedicated to this dilemma combined with the research activities meant to modify and transform the environment led me to the logical conclusion as to how to define “information”as being: the result of man’s conscious activities to “energetically transform the substance”.

On this basis, determined by the support of”the environmental informational system”(s/chapt.3.1) which can be achieved by the complex system of geospatial measurements, by the complex system of cadastre records, for all real estate (land or/and buildings), GIS and by other sciences related to the natural and artificial resources of the environment, we therefore reached the concept of geo-cybernetics.

This name, very useful in the future, comes from geo = geoid = earth, meaning environment, to which we add the name Wiener gave to cybernetics, for which we preserved the letter Y.

In this way I also bring my contribution to the general effort for protecting nature and to actively participate in the environmental protection of the world I live in.

3. THE ENVIRONMENT – A COMPLEX CYBERNETIC SYSTEM

Man -humanity at large – lives and earns his living by using our planet’s natural resources, by using the environment conveniently within the society that it has created in time.

The evolution of human society on the Earth, very different in space and time, the requirements forced upon us by the need to ensure our everyday nourishment and lodgings, etc. have determined the appearance of a complex land planning and buildings of all types which make up together the so-called artificial resources.

We may represent graphically, through a simplifying hypothesis, the environment we live in which includes three factors, Figure 2, whose significance and characteristics are the following:

O -the man (the population) is the dynamic factor, ever-growing, with an essential role in changing the environment.
N -the natural habitat (the territory) that includes the sum of all the natural resources, it is a factor limited in time and space.
C -the changed framework that includes the sum of all artificial resources, i.e. the elements of the natural framework modified by the man together with the totality of buildings, a dynamic factor dependent on the natural background and therefore limited in time and space.
P -the products achieved by man, under various forms through: industry, agriculture, buildings, etc. through: industry, agriculture, buildings, etc.



The three factors together (O, N, C) that constitute the humanity’s milieu are in a mutual interdependence within the space determined by their “intersection”. At the same time, these factors are in mutual relations, two by two, in spaces determined by such intersections.

By means of this scheme we may emphasize the cybernetically-based circuit determined by the human action upon the land which ultimately leads to the process of a controlled and directed “transformation”made by the man and completed by means of “information”, as a result of substance energetic transformation (see s/chapt. 2.3)

This information can be obtained only through a complex, multi-discipline system of sciences specific to all the human activities of changing, modeling, planning and endowment in time and space of the environment based on technical and scientific facilities and on specialists in this field.

So, a harmonious economical and social development in the territory depends on the best ways, means and methods the society finds appropriate, for an efficient combination of the three factors in order to make human activity more concrete in all its forms.

As an objective necessity of the society, this activity implies the coordination of the multiple interests that interfere on the same territory within an organized frame in order to make a rational use of the resources.

The society exerts this function by the concrete way of using the environment which at the country, county and city levels is shown by the way in which all the artificial resources are being placed, created and used properly and also how the whole territory is organized and coordinated.

Contemporary civilization, under conditions of population increase, makes possible and necessary an intense territorial mobility, creates new models and media of social life, develops great urban agglomerations within relatively small areas. The need to ensure the daily population supply in these areas has deep effects upon the position, the profile and the specialization of agro-food production in the area and it influences the optimum way of using and planning the territory.

Of course, the implications are much more numerous. I have emphasized only a few in order to demonstrate the role human society may play in the regulatory function it has over the whole territorial system in order to preserve the equilibrium of the whole environment.

The regulatory function is achieved through the continuous modification of the territorial structures by means of “models”and by ensuring the system functioning without “disturbances”.

To know the various types of connections between the phenomena and the processes that happen in the territory, the direction and their action tendencies, the complexity and interdependence of various sectors of economic-social life, the dynamics of the mutations that happen in the territory -all these require the presence of “information”in the management process.

3.1 The Informational System of the Environment

The “information”, as a result of the human activity of transformation and modeling the environment, required by the management activities, determines the introduction of a complex system of gathering, stocking and processing of all the information characteristic to the process of transformation of the natural resources and of the creation of artificial resources necessary to human life and well-being.

This complex system, Figure 3, that measures up, emphasizes and processes all the information about the environment may be made up of the following:

MG -the system of geospatial measurements.
CAD -the system of cadastre recording.
GIS -the geospatial informational system. SIMI -the environmental informational system


Fig.3: The Informational System of the Environmental

The informational flux among the three systems suggests bi-univocal relations and they also show that the intersection of the three components represents the environmental informational system.

The use of cybernetics as a modern method of research and management is more visible these days in all the fields of human activity where there are analogies with this science.

So, geo-cybernetics, as a science and as a part of the technical, economic, social, etc, activities presents, as we have shown before, the main cybernetic categories : the system, the model, the information, the command, the regulation, the self-regulation, etc.

4. “GEO – CYBERNETICS”– AN ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATING AND SELF – REGULATING SYSTEM

The concepts of regulation and self-regulation are fundamental issues of cybernetics. From Wiener’s own definition, we conclude that cybernetics was born from an analogy between the human beings and the technical devices created by the man. Any analogy support itself on at least one common trace.

The main common characteristic used by Wiener was self-regulation. He pointed out that both humans and the machines are capable to preserve for some periods of time a certain equilibrium in their relations with the environment. So, in humans, the temperature, the pressure, the chemical composition of the cell etc are preserved in a state of equilibrium. There is a regulation mechanism that keeps up the temperature of the human body at 37 ° Celsius independent from the environmental temperature and this phenomenon is called homeostasis.

The same happens with some machinery, in the technical field.

This phenomenon resides in the capacity of both beings and artificialstructures created by the man to answer in a way or another to the interaction between them and the environment – the self-regulation principle. As Wiener pointed out, the major way to achieve self-regulation is “command”which implies the presence of “communication”.

As a result, as Wiener used to say, all the economic and social phenomena regulation is similar to the live and artificial organisms self-regulation principle.

In the society the regulation is not done automatically, but by means of functional relations on which the function of coordination and organization is based. The point of contact between the system and the environment is the “program”.

Conventionally we may consider that the system is regulated when the program and the resources for its achievement are established by a higher hierarchy, being self-regulated when the program is established by the territorial cybernetic system itself, taking into account the conditions of the resource self-regeneration. So, the self-regulation of the organizational and controlling systems is analogous to the process of adaptation and selection of the biological systems.
Once the program is adopted through regulation by a superior territorial factor or through self-regulation there appears the second analogy with the beings, namely the internal self-regulation.

This category – the regulation-may be defined in general terms as a process where a regulated value or an output value of a system is maintained in a dependence by the input value.

The regulation is achieved by means of measurements of the output values, by comparing it with the input value and by acting upon the system processes so that the difference between the two values should be as small as possible and preserve within optimum limits imposed by the necessity of conservation and the normal functioning of the system under analysis.

Self-regulation is produced when not only the output value is kept dependent to the input value, but also in reverse, in order to eliminate the “disturbances”that appear along the way as well as of the preservation of the system under its optimum functional parameters, the input being controlled by the output.

The aim of regulation in a cybernetic system is to keep up all its functional parameters within some constant limits, i.e., to have a “stabilizing “ function for the command. This happens because both inside the system and outside it a series of disturbances may occur which may divert the result of the action of processes or phenomena that take place in the system from the command value.

Regulation and self-regulation can be performed, in cybernetic systems, either by “correcting”the deviations of the real values from the norm(or command value), or by a compensation or removal of the disturbances that made them, by comparing the command value –the input-with the result value – the output.

This operation presupposes “an inverted”action, the so-called reverse connection or feed-back or retroaction which closes up the chain of connections between all the elements of the system..


The reverse connection represents the fundamental notion of regulation and self-regulation, being the elements that coordinate cybernetic system functioning.

The reverse connection represents the fundamental notion of regulation and self-regulation, being the elements that coordinate cybernetic system functioning.

The system components linked by means of direct and reverse connections, the regulated system and the regulating one which, together, make up the geo-cybernetic system of management and organization in the territory.


Fig.4: The Geo-Cybernetic Block Scheme of Environmental Management

(My note: Well well, doesn't this look like they have projected onto this 'Gaia' cybernetic feedback control loop the God from the Old Testament - the one who could really mess up your day and that of entire peoples if you pissed him off or he happened to have a bad hair day? Just putting the thought out there - doesn't look like this is a God (or Guardian if you will) of the 'good shepherd' kind... OODA Loop just got elevated to a God in Gaia.)

Corresponding to the cybernetic concepts, the specific notions of organization and control as well as of the personal points of view shown in the previous chapters, the geo-cybernetic block scheme of Figure 4 represents the synthesis of all the ideas that make up the concept of “geo-cybernetics”.

5. CONCLUSIONS

The whole problem presented in this paper needs some extra information to be better understood:

-Our life on the Earth requires a different way of approach in as far as Man-Nature relationship is concerned.
-Science, in general, that is present in almost all the activities of transformation characteristic to human activity in relation to Nature must adapt itself and work out according to the new requirements of a sustainable development as well as to the environmental protection as such.
-The definition we gave to “information”different from the one given by Wiener may contribute to a more consistent approach to the concept of management and to the act of decision-making as well.
-On this basis, geo-cybernetics may become a discipline or a study program, a specialization, perhaps, with a curriculum adapted to the new requirements.
-The ideas presented here contain, cybernetically speaking, two categories of information: the knowledge I gathered in time from all types of sources I have studied and whose essence has been used here in this paper as well as the personal contribution underlined and written in blue.
-For the sake of simplifying the text from a graphical point of view I gave up giving numbers with extra signs.
-For the sake of simplification, I also made a selection of the bibliographical titles.

REFERENCES
[1] Wiener, N, Cybernetics, Scientific Publishing House, Bucharest, 1966.
[2] Klaus, G., Cybernetics and Society, Political Publishing House, Bucharest, 1966.
[3] Lange, O., Introduction to Economical Cybernetics, Scientific Publishing House, Bucharest 1967
[4] Ross Ashby, W., Introduction to Cybernetics, Technical Publishing House, Bucharest, 1972.
[5] Stangu, I., Doctoral Thesis, The University of Agricultural Sciences, Bucharest, 1978.
[6] Stangu, I., The Cadastre – The Interface between Human Society and the Environment, FIG, XXII International Congress, Washington, DC, 2002

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

Eng. Ioan STANGU, Phd., Associate Professor in Topography and Land Management, “Lower Danube”University. Cadastre, Management and Protection of Environment Department, Galatz, ROMANIA. FIG Academic Member.

CONTACTS

„Lower Danube”University of Galatz
47, Domneasca Street, 800008 Galatz, ROMANIA
Fax: (+40) 236 461353

Private Adress: Melodiei Street, nr.16, Bloc C12, ap. 6,
Code 800062 Galatz, ROMANIA

E-mail: istangu@ugal.ro
Phone: +40336435779
Fax: +40336435778

Galatz, ROMANIA -Mai, 2009

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